World Diabetes Day was launched in 1991 in view of the rapidly growing number of diabetics around the world. The date of November 14 is the birthday of Frederick G. Banting, who, along with Charles Herbert Best 1921, discovered the important hormone insulin, as stated in a statement about the cantonal hospital Uri.
On this day, diabetes, its causes and its impact on the lives of affected people should be noted by the world. "In particular, it should be clear that diabetes is not a few problems, but more and more people around the world must live with the disease," the Swiss Diabetes Society (SDG) writes.
Is early detection of diabetes possible?
Esther Hunkeler: In type 2 diabetes, previously called increased diabetes, definitely. If someone belongs to a risk group, it is meaningful that the blood sugar level is checked regularly by the family doctor. Thus high blood sugar levels can be detected early and initiated initial measures, for example in connection with lifestyle changes with nutrition advice. There is no early detection for type 1 diabetes, which occurs mainly in childhood and adolescents, and can generally develop in all stages of life. The reason for this is that the pancreas suddenly stops producing insulin and this is unpredictable.
Division? So how does someone notice if he or she has diabetes risk?
Esther Hunkeler: A person is at increased risk of developing diabetes if, for example, they are overweight, they suffer from high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. These factors are enhanced when you have close relatives who already have diabetes – for example, father, mother or siblings. But people who have normal body weight but are family-run can also develop diabetes. In addition, studies have shown that regular physical activity can be an effective way to prevent diabetes.
The cold is also the sweet season. What does this mean for diabetics?
Esther Hunkeler: Eating and drinking has a direct influence on blood sugar levels. In diabetes counseling, I often get questions about nutrition, which is then discussed in nutrition advice. In diabetes counseling, I explain the patient the clinical picture. They also learn to measure the blood sugar properly. In addition, patients should learn to understand their individual diabetes treatment, whether it is a drug or insulin regimen. If someone has to inject insulin, he or she will be trained by me. The goal of diabetes counseling is that the patient can handle the diabetes properly with the help of the doctor.
Patrik Jauch: Sweet things do not have to be completely dried by the diet, even with diabetes. It is usually advisable to schedule candy and desserts immediately after a main meal instead of in between.
Is the consumption of too many sweets the cause of diabetes?
Patrik Jauch: People often say that, but they are not right. The main factor is obesity or, in particular, excessive gastric fat. It has the greatest effect. And then it has to be said that not only white sugar has an influence but rather the total amount of carbohydrates, which also affects fructose, starch supplement, malt or milk sugar. Excessive intake may, in addition to the effects on weight and abdominal fat, also have an independent influence on when a type 2 diabetes is "broken out". A supply of action – including sweets – but also a balanced diet.
Generally for nutrition. How is the disease risk really dependent on the diet?
Patrik Jauch: A well-balanced diet is necessary to maintain good health. It's not just about eating vegetables, but also about the overall balance. Today, it is known that various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and many others can be avoided for a long time – but not 100 percent. Nutrition or malnutrition is also just a risk factor such as heredity, environment, smoking and so on.
Is diabetes a welfare disease?
Esther Hunkeler: Yes, a part of it really depends on our societal prosperity. A large part of the population is engaged in a sedentary job. In addition, food is always and everywhere available, especially very high energy, high calorie food. These two factors promote obesity, which in turn is a risk factor for the onset of diabetes.
In the morning after getting up, a cup of coffee, an espresso. What do you say as a dietician?
Patrik Jauch: Breakfast is important. People who have breakfast have a lower chance of suffering from diabetes, obesity or its consequences, even according to new studies. Therefore, I would not interrupt the coffee. Especially with coffee it is also assumed to have positive effects on the cardiovascular system. But I would consider nutritional advice what you would probably like to eat for breakfast. Mostly, I would then set a concrete goal until the next meeting.
Health healthy, avoid diabetes. Can you say it?
Patrik Jauch: To avoid may be the wrong word, but delay it. So, if you eat healthy, you get the type 2 diabetes called age sugar, only 90, instead of 60, if you get a strong family exposure. But Type 1 diabetes has nothing to do with lifestyle. This can be influenced in young age as well as in old age, although the lifestyle is healthy.
Should diabetics do more sports?
Esther Hunkeler: Yes, definitely. Regular physical activity is an important part of the treatment concept, as exercise can lower blood sugar, even without insulin. Movement within 150 minutes per week has a positive effect on sugar metabolism. It does not matter if it's 60 minutes swimming twice a week plus 30 minutes of home trainer riding at home or 30 minutes quick drive after dinner four times a week. And it does not matter if someone moves more than 150 minutes a week.
Are there any special dietary supplements for diabetes?
Patrik Jauch: The reason today is the recommendations of a normal balanced diet. The "right" diet, however, is the one that suits the treatment. Whether they only need to pay attention to the lifestyle, taking pills or injecting insulin, are fundamentally different from the recommendations. It is important to know about the possibilities and then decide how much you can or want to do. The one who wants to get the most out of a lifestyle change, the other wants to implement especially the most important cornerstones of everyday life, which is also good. Therefore, we recommend individual consultation rather than very general information.
Can a person come to your hospital if they have a question about diet and health?
Patrik Jauch: Yes, in case of diabetes such as diabetes, each person has the right to six to twelve nutrition consultations and nine diabetic consultations per calendar year. These are taken over by the health insurance's basic insurance if you have a prescription. It is therefore worth discussing with your family supervisor a possible breakdown. (Pd / ml)