Researchers say that public health strategies to reduce the consumption of sugary can be useful as they create a greater risk of type 2 diabetes than most foods
Soot drinks represent a greater risk of type 2 diabetes than most other foods containing fructose – a naturally occurring sugar – according to a new BMJ report.
The results indicate that fruit and other foods containing fructose do not appear to have a harmful effect on blood glucose levels, while sweetened drinks and some other foods that add excessive energy to diets can have harmful effects.
"These results can help guide recommendations on important food sources for fructose in preventing and managing diabetes," says Dr. John Sievenpiper, Leading author of the study and a researcher at the Center for Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor against St. Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Canada.
"But the probative value is low and more high-quality studies are needed."
Sucker's role in the development of diabetes and heart disease attracts an extensive debate, and increasing evidence suggests that fructose can be particularly harmful.
Fruits occur naturally in a range of foods, including whole fruits and vegetables, natural fruit juices and honey. It is also added to foods such as soda, breakfast cereals, pastries, sweets and desserts under the "free sugars" guide.
Current dietary advice recommends that you reduce free sugars, especially fructose, from sweetened beverages. At the moment, it is unclear whether this should be the case for all food sources for these sugars.
As such, researchers who were founded at St. Michael and the University of Toronto analysis of the results from 155 studies, and evaluated the effects of various food sources of fructose on blood glucose levels in people with and without diabetes. The test subjects were monitored for up to 12 weeks.
The results were based on four forms of study: substitution (sugar from other carbohydrates), additive (energy from sugar fed to diet), subtraction (energy from sugars removed from diet) or ad libitum (energy from sugar, freely replaced).
The result was glycated hemoglobin or HbA1c (amount of glucose linked to red blood cells), fasting glucose and fasting insulin (blood glucose and insulin levels after a fasting period).
The results show that most foods containing fructose sugar do not have a harmful effect on blood sugar levels when these foods do not provide excess calories. However, a damaging effect has been shown on fasting insulin, in some studies.
Analysis of specific foods suggests that fruit and fruit juice when these foods do not provide excess calories can have positive effects on blood sugar and insulin control, especially in people with diabetes. But food that adds excessive "nutritional" energy to the diet seems to have harmful effects.
The researchers conclude: "Until more information is available, public health workers should be aware that harmful effects of fructose sugar on blood sugar appear to be mediated by energy and food."
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