The Health Secretariat, through the Health Advisory Board, requests that the 75 municipalities in Sergipe intensify their preventive measures and contradict Calazar, also known as Visceral Leishmaniasis, which is considered to be one of the most parasitic diseases that kill most of the world. Sergipe is considered an endemic state and inspires constant vigilance. By 2017, 74 confirmed cases of the disease were registered with nine deaths. By 2018, from January to October, there were 55 confirmed cases and nine deaths. The average is five cases per month.
The director of health monitoring of SES, Mércia Feitosa, informs that it is the role of the state to monitor the actions of the municipalities, guide, formulate with the central laboratory, promote the training of professionals, and provide the necessary hospitalization services to address the cases. It is also reported that some municipalities have a Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program, through which they develop their actions.
"When there is a confirmed human case, action must be triggered and must be articulated. The entomological part that is the vector's control, the research section of new human cases with the same symptoms, which is the active search, the animal's part, to know if there are animals that are sick , to investigate these animals, in addition to the educational part of the population, because the environment must be evaluated as a whole, says Mercia.
The education of healthcare professionals is very important for them to discover Leishmania early and SES performs the permanent education effort with primary care staff with training for doctors and nurses every year. "They must have this sensitive appearance for a patient who enters a clinic, analyzing what the patient reports, thinking about the possibility of being Leishmaniasis. To do this, they must know if the municipality is endemic or not, if there is an intensive or occasional manifestation of the disease, and how do we know this? In addition to the number of incidents of human cases, "Mercia reports.
According to the director, there are three potential municipalities: Aracaju, Nossa Senhora do Socorro and São Cristóvão, where cases are recorded annually. "In these municipalities, the transfer is intensive, so all actions must be continued as this disease has potential for mortality, 90 percent of cases can die. The prerequisite for the Leishmania program is: early diagnosis and rapid treatment. With this we can reduce the death rate and for this control we must always monitor, "concludes Feitosa.
Visceral Leishmaniasis or Calazar is a disease caused by the protozoan of the Trypanosomatidae family and belongs to the genus Leishmania. The transmission of the disease is through bites of hematophagous insects, those who feed on blood, of the genus Lutzomya and Phlebotomus. This type of Leishmaniasis is considered to be the most serious and, if left untreated, it is lethal in more than 90% of cases.
Infection and symptoms
The parasite migrates to the host's visceral organs when reaching liver, spleen and bone marrow, which causes serious symptoms, which can lead to death. The individual may have fever, weight loss, weakness, enlarged spleen and liver, swollen lymph nodes, anemia, kidney problems, lung changes, dry cough, skin scalding and hair loss. The incubation time of the disease is very varied: from ten days to 24 months.
Diagnosis and treatment
The diagnosis is made by combining the clinical signs with the serological and parasitological tests.
Kalahari is a treatable and curable disease. All diagnosed patients need fast and complete treatment, and those who are cured almost always develop lifelong immunity.
Individual protection using repellents, use of mosquito nets, window gallery, use of insecticides; building of houses at a distance of 500 meters from the forest, disposal of tanks, treatment.