Tuesday , August 16 2022

Height likely to help the Andes survive contact with Europeans


<img data-attachment id = "446100" data-permalink = "https://www.courthousenews.com/altitude-likely-helped-andean-people-survive-contact-with-european/andes/" data-orig -file = "https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?fit=1000%2C661&ssl=1" data-orig-size = "1000 661 "data-comments-opened =" 0 "data-image-meta =" "blender": "0", "credit": "", "camera": "", "caption" created_timestamp " , "copyright": "", "focal_length": "0", "iso": "0", "shutter_speed": "0", "title": "", "orientation": "0"} "data- image-title = "Andes" data-image-description = "

Andes Macchu Picchu

"data-medium-file =" https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?fit=300%2C198&ssl=1 "data-large- file = "https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?fit=1000%2C661&ssl=1" class = "aligncenter wp-image-446100 size full jetpack lat image "src =" https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?resize=1000%2C661 "alt = "" width = "1000" height = "661" data-recalc-dims = "1" data-latic-srcset = "https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/ 2018/11 / Andes.jpg? W = 1000 & ssl = 1 1000w, https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?resize=300%2C198&ssl = 1 300w, https: //i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?resize=768%2C508&ssl=1 768w, https: //i1.wp .com / www.courthousenews .com / wp-content / uploads / 2018/11 / Andes.jpg? resize = 24% 2C16 & ssl = 1 24w, https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp- content / uploads / 2018/11 / Andes.jpg? resize = 36% 2C24 & ssl = 1 36w, https: //i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg? resize = 48% 2C32 & ssl = 1 48w "data-lat-size =" (max width: 1000px) 100vw, 1000px "data-latisk-src =" https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/ wp content / uploads / 2018/11 / andes.jpg? resize = 1000% 2C661 & is-pending -load = 1 "srcset =" data: image / gif; base64, R01GODlhAQABAIAAAAAAAP /// yH5BAEAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAEAAAIBRAA7 "/>

Andes Macchu Picchu

"data-medium-file =" https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?fit=300%2C198&ssl=1 "data-large- file = "https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?fit=1000%2C661&ssl=1" class = "aligncenter wp-image-446100 full size "src =" https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?resize=1000%2C661 "alt =" "width =" 1000 "height =" 661 "srcset =" https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?w=1000&ssl=1 1000w, https: // i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?resize=300%2C198&ssl=1 300w, https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews. com / wp content / uploads / 2018/11 / Andes.jpg? resize = 768% 2C508 & ssl = 1 768w, https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?resize=24%2C16&ssl=1 24w, https://i1.wp.com/www.courthousenews.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Andes.jpg?resize=36%2C24&ssl= 1 36w, https://i1.wp.com/www .courthousenews.com/wp-content / upl ods / 2018/11 / Andes.jpg? resize = 48% 2C32 & ssl = 1 48w "size =" (max width: 1000px) 100vw, 1000px "data-recalc-dims =" 1 "/>(CN) – Adapting to higher heights gave the people of the Andes mountains an advantage that most inhabitants of the "New World" unfortunately did not have: they could avoid being completely wiped out by the diseases of European colonies, according to a new genetic study of people in the region .

In a continent full of harsh climate, Andes are among the most intense with freezing temperatures, ultraviolet radiation and low acid levels. But people adapted to the region thousands of years ago.

By studying the complete genres of ancient people in Andes and comparing them with genetics of modern South Americans, a research group looked at how people's cardiovascular and cardiovascular systems might have adapted.

Cardiovascular systems in people at high altitudes may have adapted in a way that allowed more blood to flow to their lungs, the team concluded in a study published in the journal Science Advances.

"This is a hard, cold, resource-poor environment with low levels of oxygen," said Anna Di Rienzo of the University of Chicago, who led the study. "But people there adapted to the habitat and the agrarian lifestyle."

The team compared seven genres from ancient Ancient people and compared them with 64 genres from present populations in the high altitudes, as well as indigenous peoples from Bolivia and the coast of Chile.

They hoped to analyze the impact of European colonists on domestic populations, many of whom were almost wiped out by contact with third parties in the 16th century.

The team completed people living in the high altitude climate had much lower population reductions than those at lower altitudes, and they had some possible explanations.

While demographic models and records show that up to 90 percent of low-country members were wiped out after European contact, those living in the higher regions saw a population decline of only 27 percent.

An explanation may be genetic modifications that enhanced their ability to breathe the oxygen-dependent air into the high heights.

The team found evidence that a gene called DST, related to cardiac muscle formation, had changed. This could have made it possible for people to absorb oxygen more efficiently.

A transition to a herbal diet based on potatoes, native to the region, may also have played a part in the survival of the Andean.

The presence of a gene called MGAM, which helps people to digest starch milk, convinced the team to "a significant shift in diet from one who was probably more meat based on another herbicide."

"The timing of the appearance of the variant is entirely in line with what we know about paleo-ethno-botanical record in the highlands," says anthropologist Mark Aldenderfer.

Potatoes, native to the region, may have been tamed 5000 years ago, according to new research.

The team also found that modern people living in the mountains have a high genetic affinity with the ancient spirits living in the region before European contact.

It is likely that they concluded that the modern people are the descendants of the people who survived the epidemics of smallpox and other diseases.

"Contact with Europeans had a devastating impact on South American populations, such as the introduction of disease, war and social disturbances," said John Lindo of the University of Chicago.

"By focusing on the period before that, we were able to distinguish environmental adaptations from adaptations that stem from historical events."

The study was also conducted by Ricardo Verdugo of the University of Chile.

Source link