Thursday , November 26 2020

Ancient "super-earth" exoplanet discovered the path near the star



The nearest one star to the sun is obviously worthy of a big, icey planet.

Astronomers have found strong evidence of a free foreign world about 3.2 times more massive than the Earth that circles Barnard's Star, a dark red dwarf that is only 6 light years from the sun. Barnard Star is our closest neighbor next to the three-star Alpha Centauri system, which is about 4.3 light years away.

The newly discovered world, known as Barnard's Star b, remains a planet candidate for now. But the researchers who discovered it are convinced that the foreigners plan will ultimately be confirmed. [Barnard’s Star b: What We Know About the “Super-Earth’ Candidate]

"After a very careful analysis, we are 99 percent convinced that the planet is there," says Ignasi Ribas, Institute for Space Studies in Catalonia and Space Research Institute in Spain, in a statement.

"But we continue to observe this fast-paced star to rule out possible but unlikely, natural variations of the star-shaped brightness that can mask like a planet," added Ribas's leading author to a new study announcing the discovery of Barnard Star b. The study was published online today (November 14) in the journal Nature.

An artist's impression of newfound

Barnard's Star b, if confirmed, will not be nearest exoplanet to the ground. This designation is held by the Earthquake World Proxima b, which surrounds Proxima Centauri, one of the Alpha Centauri trio.

NASA's Kepler Space Telescope revealed that small planets are common in the West Bengal galaxy. Together, Proxima b and Barnard's Star b suggest that such worlds are "common in our neighborhood," co-author Johanna Teske, of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, DC, told Space.com. "And that's super exciting."

A close sunbathing

Barnard's Star is named after the American astronomer E.E. Barnard, who in 1916 discovered the speed mentioned by Ribas. No other star moves faster than the Barnard's Star, who travels if the full moon's width was 180 years. [Gallery: The Strangest Alien Planets]

This unprecedented apparent movement is a result of close proximity to Barnard's Star and its high (but not recordable) speed of 310,000 mph (500,000 km / h) relative to the sun.

RELATED: 2018 space calendar:

33 PICTURES

2018 space calendar

See Gallery

1 January 2: Supermoon / Full Wolf Moon

The moon will do its closest approach to the earth on New Year's Day and will turn out to be bigger and brighter than usual, which serves the difference between "Supermoon".

In addition, the first full moon of any year earns the distinction "Full Wolf Moon". The term was created by Indians as a pleasure to the excavating wolves they would often hear outside their villages in January.

Photo: Matt Cardy / Getty Images

3 January 4: Quadrantids Meteor shower

Quadrantid meteor shower, known to produce from 50-100 meteors below its peak, is 2018's first major meteor shower.

Unfortunately, the light from almost full moon will block most of the show.

Photo: NurPhoto / NurPhoto via Getty Images

January 31: Total Lunar Eclipse / Blue Moon

A Blue Moon is the term for the second full moon for one month with more than one full moon.

January Blue Moon also happens to coincide with a total lunar eclipse.

Photo: REUTERS / Mike Hutchings

February 15th: Partial sun eclipse

This type of eclipse occurs when the moon throws a shadow that only covers a part of the sun.

The partial solar eclipse of February 15 is only visible in parts of South America and Antarctica. Those who want to bring it in must use special safety goggles.

Photo: REUTERS / Tatyana Makeyeva TPX PHOTOS ON THE DAY

March 2nd: Full Moon Moon

Another term coined by the Indians, a "Full Worm Moon" is the difference given to the first full moon in March.

As the temperature gets warmer, the soil begins to soften and rainworms begin back their heads through the ground again.

Photo: NICHOLAS KAMM / AFP / Getty Images

March 15: Mercury reaches the largest eastern extension

Mercury will reach its largest eastern extension of the sun (ie its highest point above the horizon) on March 15th.

This will make the planet more visible than usual.

Photo: The Royal Observatory Greenwich, London

April 22, 23: Lyrid Meteor Shower

Lyrid meteor shower, which usually produces about 20 meteors per hour, reaches its peak between the night of April 22 and the morning of the 23rd.

Photo: Ye Aung Thu / AFP / Getty Images

April 30: Full Pink Moon

"Full Pink Moon" is another term believed to have been made by Indian tribes.

In April, the weather will begin to get hotter and flowers will start to appear and earn the moon's full moon its beautiful name.

Photo: Ben Birchall / PA pictures via Getty Images

6 May 7: Eta Aquarid Meteor Shower

Eta Aquarid meteor shower, consisting of dust particles left behind Halley's Comet, can produce up to 60 meteors per hour at peak.

Although most of its activities can be observed in the southern hemisphere, the Norwegians can still take in the show if weather conditions permit.

Photo: NASA

May 9: Jupiter reaches the opposition

Gasjätten will do its next approach to Earth on May 9, which makes it appear brighter than any other time of year.

Photo: Universal History Archive via Getty Images

May 29: The full flower

May full moon got this name of native American tribes, since the beginning of the month is typical when the flowers are full blooms.

Photo: REUTERS / Navesh Chitrakar TPX PHOTOS ON THE DAY

27th of June: Saturn achieves resistance

Saturn will do its closest approach to earth on June 27, which makes it look brighter than any other time of year.

Photo: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Space Sciences Institute / Dividend via REUTERS

June 28: Full Strawberry Moon

As the last full moon of the year, stargazers can expect this to be big and bright – but unlike its name it is not red.

The strawberry plum season reaches its peak in June and earns the month's first full moon for its delicious name.

Photo: Matt Cardy / Getty Images

July 13th: Partly Cloudy Eclipse

This type of eclipse occurs when the moon throws a shadow that only covers a part of the sun.

The partial solar eclipse on July 13 is only visible in parts of southern Australia and Antarctica. Those who want to bring it in must use special safety goggles.

Photo: REUTERS / Mal Langsdon TPX PHOTOS ON THE DAY

July 27th: March reaches the opposition

You guessed it – Mars will do its closest approach to Earth on July 27, which makes it look brighter, and therefore more visible than any other time of year.

Photo: NASA / Handout via Reuters

July 27: Full Buck Moon

The full moon in July was called "Full Buck Moon" of Indian tribes, as it appears during this season when the deer begins to grow their new rifles.

Photo: REUTERS / Carlo Allegri

28 July 29: Total lunar eclipse

A total lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes completely through the shadow of the earth, letting the moon out of darkness.

July eclipse will appear in North America, East Asia and Australia.

Photo: REUTERS / Kacper Pempel

August 11: Partial eclipse

This type of eclipse occurs when the moon throws a shadow that only covers a part of the sun.

The partial solar eclipse on August 11 is only visible in parts of Canada, Greenland, Northern Europe and North and East Asia. Those who want to bring it in must use special safety goggles.

Photo: REUTERS / Samrang Pring TPX PHOTOS ON THE DAY

12 August 13: Perseid Meteor Shower

Perseid meteor shower, consisting of dust particles supplied by Swift-Tuttle Comet, can produce up to 60 meteors per hour at peak.

The thin crescent of the night of August 12 will create favorable outlook for the celestial spectacle, which should be visible worldwide.

Photo: REUTERS / Paul Hanna

August 17: Venus reaches the largest eastern extension

Venus will do its closest approach to Earth on August 17, which makes it appear brighter, and therefore more visible than any other time of year.

Photo: Photo12 / UIG via Getty Images

August 26: Full Sturgeon Moon

In August, this difference earned from native American tribes, as it was most easily seized this month.

Photo: Pradita Utana / NurPhoto via Getty Images

September 7: Neptune Reach Opposition

Neptune will do its closest approach to Earth on September 7, which makes it appear brighter and therefore more visible than any other time of year.

Because of its distance from the ground, the blue planet will only be displayed as a small point to even those who use telescopes.

Photo: Time Life Pictures / NASA / LIFE Picture Collection / Getty Images)

September 24th 25: Full Harvest Moon

The name & # 39; Harvest Moon & # 39; goes to the full moon that occurs next autumn equinox every year.

Photo: Santiago Vidal / LatinContent / Getty Images

October 8: Draconid Meteor Shower

Draconid meteor shower, which consists of dust particles left behind the comet 21P Giacobini-Zinner, produces only about 10 meteors per hour at its peak.

The new moon on the night of October 9, however, will create extremely favorable viewing conditions for the shower, which should be visible all over the world.

Photo: NASA

21 October 22: Orionid Meteor Shower

Another shower produced by Halley's comet, Orionids is likely to be at least partially blocked by the light of almost full moon on October 21st.

Photo: Yuri Smityuk TASS via Getty Images

October 23: Uranus reaches resistance

Uranus will do its closest approach to Earth on October 23, which makes it appear brighter and therefore more visible than any other time of year.

Unfortunately, it's so far from the ground that it will not be visible without a powerful telescope.

Photo: Time Life Pictures / Jet Propulsion Laboratory / NASA / LIFE Images Collection / Getty Images

October 24th: Full Hunters Moon

The full moon of October was called the "Full Hunter Moon" of naive American tribes, as the animals were more easily discovered during this time of the year after the plants lost their leaves /

Photo: PA Wire / PA Pictures

5 November 6: Taurids Meteor Shower

The Taurides are a small meteor shower that only produces between 5-10 meteors per hour at the peak.

Photo: NASA

November 17, 18: Leonid Meteor Shower

Leonid meteor shower, radiating from the constellation Leo, produces about 15 meteors per hour at its peak.

Photo: Ali Jarekji / Reuters

November 23: Full Beaver Moon

Norway's full moon was named by Indian tribes, who would set up bees traps during the month hoping to catch the creatures for their warm coat.

Photo: Matt Cardy / Getty Images

December 13th 14: Gemini Meteor Shower

Geminides meteor shower, produced by debris left by an asteroid called 3200 Phaethon, is known as one of the most spectacular of its kind.

The exhibition can produce up to 120 meteors per hour in peak and will be visible throughout the planet on the night of December 13th.

Photo: REUTERS / Navesh Chitrakar

21 December 22: Urside Meteor Shower

Draconid meteor shower, which consists of dust particles left behind Tuttle Comet, produces only about 10 meteors per hour at its peak.

Unfortunately, the full moon on December 22 is likely to create adverse display conditions for the smaller show.

Photo: REUTERS / Daniel Aguilar DA / LA

December 22: Full Cold Moon

Not surprisingly, December was full month named by Indian tribes after the cold winter weather.

Photo: Matt Cardy / Getty Images




HIDE CAPTION

VISA CAPTION

And Barnard's Star Comes Closer to Us Every Day: About 10,000 years, the red dwarf will take over the closest cloak from the Alpha Centauri system. At that time only 3.8 light years will separate Barnard Star from the sun.

Barnard's Star is about twice as old as the sun's earth, a sixth as massive and only 3 percent as brilliant. Because Barnard's Star is so dark, the "habitable zone" lies – the distance where liquid water may be possible on the world's surface – is very close. In fact, researchers estimate that the zone is a sliver that is 0.06 AU to 0.10 AU from the star. (An AU or astronomical unit is Earth-Sun Distance – about 93 million kilometers or 150 million kilometers.)

The concept of habitable zones is of course a tricky one. Measuring a world's true habitat requires strong working knowledge of its atmospheric composition and thickness, among other features. And such information is difficult to come up with for exoplanets.

A long search

Barnard's Star has long been a goal for exoplanet hunters, but their searches have always come up empty – so far.

And the new discovery was not easy: Ribas and his team analyzed large amounts of data, both archives and newly collected, before they finally dug up Barnard's Star b.

They used the "radial velocity" method, which is looking for changes in star-lights caused by gravity trains of a circular planet. Such trailers cause a star to fan something, shifting its light against red wavelengths sometimes and towards the blue end of the spectrum of others, seen from the ground. [7 Ways to Discovery Alien Planets]

"We used observations from seven different instruments, which spaned 20 years of measurements, making this one of the largest and most comprehensive data sets ever used for accurate radial velocity studies," said Ribas in the same statement. "The combination of all data led to a total of 771 measurements – a large amount of information! "

Never before had the radial velocity method been used to find such a small planet in such a remote orbit, study members said. (Large, nearby planets hit their host stars more vigorously, causing more dramatic and easier detectable light shifts.)

The seven instruments were the high-accuracy radial velocity explorer (HARPS) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) La Silla Observatory in Chile. Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, at ESO Paranal Observatory in Chile; HARPS-North, at the Galileo National Telescope in the Canary Islands; High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer, at Keck 10 meter telescope in Hawaii; Carnegie Institute's Planet Finder Spectrograph, at Magellan 6.5-meter telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile; Automated Planet Finder at the 2.4-m telescope at the University of California's Lick Observatory; and & CARMENES, at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain.

The researchers also discovered tips on another possible planet in the system, which stretches beyond Barnard's Star b-way further, with an orbital period of 6,600 earth days. But the second signal is too weak to be considered a planet candidate, Teske said.

"There is not enough data," she said to Space.com.

A frigid super soil

Barnards Star b is at least 3.2 times larger than our own planet, making it a super-earth class of worlds that is significantly larger than Earth but less than "isgigants" like Neptune and Uranus.

The newly-found planet candidate is 0.4 AU from the host star and completes a circulation every 233 days of Earth, according to the new study.

This orbital distance is similar to radiation-blown mercury in our own solar system. But because the Barnard Star is so dim, the potential plane is right around the system's "snow line" – the region where volatile materials like water can condense to solid crystals.

"So far, only giant planets have been discovered at such a distance from their stars," Rodrigo Diaz, of the Astronomical and Space Physics Institute at the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research and the University of Buenos Aires in Argentina, said in a accompanying "News and Views" article that also published today in Nature.

"The authors' discovery of a low-mass plan near the snow line places strong demands on formation models for this type of planet," added Diaz, who was not involved in the new study.

Barnard's Star b, if it really is, is not a very promising home as we know, at least not on the surface. The potential planet is likely to be very cold, with an estimated surface temperature of approximately minus 275 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 170 degrees Fahrenheit), said study members.

Confirmation of Barnard's Star b is unlikely to be from further radial velocity measurements, Diaz wrote. However, super-specific measurements of star positions, such as those now made by the European Space Agency's Gaia spacecraft, can do the job in the next few years, he added.

"Even more exciting, next-generation, ground-based instrumentation, which will come into operation in the 2020s, should be able to directly form the reported planet and measure its light spectrum," wrote Diaz.

"Using this spectrum, the characteristics of the planet's atmosphere – like its winds and rotational speed – can be read out," he added. "This remarkable planet therefore gives us a key piece of planet formation and evolution puzzles and may be among the first low-mass exoplanets whose atmosphere is tested in detail."

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